The name Etna originated from the Phoenician word attuna meaning "furnace" or "chimney".
Mount Etna is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Province of Catania, between Messina and Catania. It lies above the convergent plate margin between the African Plate and the Eurasian
Elevation: 3,350 m
Prominence: 3,329 m
Area: 1,190 km²
Province: Province of Catania
Mountain range: Nebrodi
The Catanian townspeople dug a channel that drained lava away from their homes, but when the diverted lava threatened the village of Paterno, the inhabitants of that community drove away the Catanians and forced them to abandon their efforts. An eruption in 1775 produced large lahars when hot material melted snow and ice on the summit, and an extremely violent eruption in 1852 produced more than 2 billion cubic feet of lava and covered more than three square miles of the volcano's flanks in lava flows.
Before 2001, Mount Etna erupted at an average of once every 1.7 years. Since 2001, a period of higher activity has kept the volcano more active; there have been eruptions every year since except in 2007.
The Parco dell’Etna (Etna Park) was established as a Regional Nature Park by Decree of the President of the Sicilian Regional Authority in May 1987. The property includes part of this Park, comprising the zone defined as an integral reserve. In addition, nine Natura 2000 sites overlap the property to various degrees, providing additional protection for 77% of the area under European legislation.
The management of the property is coordinated by Ente Parco dell’ Etna, established as the managing authority of Etna Park by Decree of the President of the Sicilian Regional Authority in May 1987, working in close cooperation with the Regional Authority of State Forests and the Regional Corps of Forest Rangers (Corpo Forestale). Management is guided by a long-term management plan and Triennial Intervention Programmes.
At the base, the mountain is mostly occupied by crops, especially citrus (up until 500 meter high).
Once, the lower slopes of the volcano were occupied by carob and wild olive, but in recent times these were replaced.
At higher altitudes (600 - 1000m above sea level) the vegetation was at a time characterized by forests of holm oak (Quercus ilex).
Today these forests almost completely disappeared due to anthropogenic influence.
They were substituted by vineyards, olive trees, almonds and pistachios on the western side and hazel on the northern side.
On the eastern side one can find forests of Turkey oak (Quercus cerris). Above these forests there are black pines, for example the pine forests of Serra la Nave.
Above the 1500 meter mark, pine trees as well as beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) can be found.
In some areas, especially on the eastern side there are trees of Etna birch (Betula aetnensis), considered by some endemic to Mount Etna.
Mount Etna broom Genista aetnensis
Broom is first thing to grow after each eruption
The terminal branches have a tendency to droop and weep.
From mid to late summer is produces an abundance of sweetly fragrant pea shaped yellow flowers.
Young plants are typical of brooms but as they age the shrubs develop into small trees with a greenish bark.
Genista aetnensis or Mount Etna Broom is a large shrub or small tree endemic to the island of Sicily, in Italy.